Upholding Ma'at

Journeying through the modern world with ancient ways.


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Pagan Blog Project: A is for Ancestors

I’m a little late in starting this project, but I thought I’d give the blog posts correlating to each letter in the English alphabet a whirl. Some of what I pick I’m sure I’ve gone over before, but sometimes I’m not as creative as some of my fellow bloggers. I’ll try to have sources on hand where possible, but most likely I won’t. If you want to know a source feel free to ask me in the comments.

In Ancient Egypt there was ancestor veneration. I’m using “veneration” because many people feel the term “ancestor worship” gives the wrong impression about how ancestors were treated at this time. Tombs were visited regularly, offerings were provided by the family to a statue of the ancestor, or offerings were provided hired clergymen. Some had stelae with the offering formula listed, so upon recitation the deceased could be provided the necessities. All of this was done as a way to ensure the deceased were cared for in the afterlife and would survive. Just as a body needed things in the living world a soul required the necessities to survive in the afterlife. The consequences could be dire if the ancestors weren’t provided the essentials. A departed soul, if neglected, could haunt the living if the deceased felt neglected. We know this based on letters written to the dead found at excavation sites, as writing letters to the deceased was common. While there were letters begging the dead to stop tormenting the living most of these letters consisted of asking for assistance in some manner.

In modern Kemetic practices in a similar vein as the ancients. However there are some major differences in the modern practice. Many keep the offerings quite simple. In lieu of statues being presented offerings or reciting offerings from a stela many Kemeticists use a photograph of a loved one. Not all ancestors have an image dedicated to them, and some ancestor shrines are set up in a general manner so not any particular ancestor is offered. Food and drink offered to the ancestors in general aren’t ingested as it’s considered ingesting the essence of the dead by some, which has ill implications for those who do ingest offerings. The reason behind it is if ingesting food and libations from the gods is like ingesting the essence of a deity (for the lack of a better term) and thus the life-giving qualities of a deity, then ingesting food and libations from ancestors would mean ingesting the essence of a dead person.

There are some modern Kemeticists who don’t offer to their ancestors period. The reasons for this vary. Some Kemeticists do not feel a connection to their ancestors. There are others who don’t feel the practice is necessary for their personal religious practice. There are other reasons, and some have multiple reasons for not offering. In my case I was averted to offering to my ancestors for personal reasons, but reconsidered my stance after problems in my life after some tribulations in my life. Whether a modern Kemeticist offers to their ancestor or not – in my opinion – doesn’t affect the validity of their religious practice. It is a matter of the individual’s choice and their comfort level.

If one wants to learn more about the practice from a modern Kemeticist’s perspective I recommend Richard Reidy’s Eternal Egypt. There are quite a few other Kemetic blogs which discuss the matter as well. At the core of offering to the ancestors consists of providing food, a libation (water being the most common), incense, and cloth for images of any ancestor. If providing offerings is an issue I highly recommend making a hotep tray with images of what should be offered. To get ideas on how to make your own I have a tutorial on how to make one from clayboard.

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Daily Ritual (My Abridged Version)

I originally posted this as a link to an outline on the Daily Morning Ritual from the Temple of Karnak during the 22nd Dynasty.  I thought it was a great outline to share at that time, and I still believe so.

Over time, though, I realized that people may not want to work on plugging in their own wording or look up what was said.  If that’s the case I recommend Richard Reidy’s book Eternal Egypt: Ancient Rituals for the Modern World.  I also realized some folks will feel obligated to follow through every step of the temple ritual.  If you don’t have time, that’s cool.  Based on the aforementioned ritual outline I linked here’s how my morning ritual tends to go.  You can adjust it accordingly.

Preparations

Formula for lighting the fire

Formula for taking the censer

Formula for placing the incense on the flame

Formula for proceeding to the sacred place

Another formula

Opening the shrine

Facing the image – hymns to the deity

Formula for kissing the earth

Formula for placing oneself on one’s stomach

Formula for placing oneself on one’s stomach and stretching out

Formula for kissing the earth, face down

Another formula

Incense

The offering of the goddess personifying What is Right Maat)

Formula for the offering of Maat

Food Offering

Libation

Incense

Reversion of Offerings


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What to Do with Food and Liquid Offerings

I stumbled across and participated in a discussion on tumblr about a blog post discussing what to do with offerings after they are given to a god.  What left most folks disliking it was the attempt to make a generic Neo-Pagan protocol of what to do with offerings without acknowledging it necessarily as such.  This also left some people dissatisfied with the post because it was impossible for them to not ingest food and drink offerings due to their financial situation.  While she (the author of the initial blog post) clarified it was meant to be a template she proceeded to make classist and racist remarks, which I felt detracted completely from her post.  I’ll address how these issues are prevalent in the Neo-Pagan community in a later post, as it is a serious topic but not the current one.  Instead I’m going to use this incident as a platform to discuss what to do with offerings from a Kemeticist perspective.

Among the top overwhelming questions for a beginner to Kemeticism is what to do with offerings.  I ran into this myself, and it’s a natural one to ask when it’s very likely someone learned about how to handle offerings from mainstream Paganism practices in the first place.   Unlearningthe ideas of offered food belonging to a god or losing its energy gets awkward when learning about practices for Ancient Egypt.  In many ways the philosophies of Ancient Egypt fly in the face of mainstream Paganism.  An area where these differences are apparent emerge when handling food and drink offerings.

In Ancient Egypt food and libations were most likely eaten and drunk.  We know for certain the priests ingested the offerings provided from temple rituals, and how offerings were also distributed to those attending festivals.  Some of the ritual offerings were offered to the dead.  What happened to the food offerings for the dead seem to have been left and not ingested.  With the possible exception of eating food offered to the dead, Egyptologists think it may have been seen as an honor to eat food provided to the gods.  I’m sure on a practical level, however, some of the philosophy behind it was due to the scarcity of the food offered; this was especially so for foods like meat or wine.  Regardless of the practicality the idea of ingesting food as an honor transferred to current religious practices.  Modern Kemeticists tend to believe the god imbues some of its ba in the food and drink, thus eating the food becomes something of a eucharist.

As in the temples Kemeticists today can perform the rituals necessary to make the food and liquid offerings fit for consumption.   It’s a series of rituals referred to collectively as the “Reversion of Offerings”.  The temple rituals consisted, but not limited to,  reciting spells, libations, incense, and extinguishing all flames.  The spells revolved around specifying Who is satiated, how the offerings would revert to the priests and followers, and how the offerings were everlasting.  Most Kemeticits practice an abridged version of the ritual, though members of the Kemetic Orthodoxy add movements such as stepping backwards then forwards a few steps.  When I’m not performing a festival ritual I recite a few of the spells after sweeping behind me.

There are a couple of sources I recommend for those who want to learn more.  The full Reversion of Offerings can be found on JSTOR, but for those who wish to practice the more abridged version I recommend Richard J. Reidy’s Eternal Egypt.

Sources

David, Rosalie.  Handbook to Life in Ancient Egypt.  New York: Facts on File, 1998.  Print.
Shafer, Byron E.  Temples of Ancient Egypt.  I.B. Tauris, 2005.  Google books.  Web.  12/20/13.
Teeter, Emily.  Religion and Ritual in Ancient Egypt.  New York: Cambridge, 2001.  Print.


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A New Perspective: Knee-Jerk Reactions

A lie can travel halfway round the world while the truth is putting on its shoes. – Charles Haddon Spurgeon (1834-92)

I thought I’d continue with my thoughts last week about overreacting and acting aggressively to revisit an old post.  Honestly I feel this post is a little moot on some levels, but I know the topic is timeless at the same time.  Knee-jerk reactions are important for everyone to examine when reading things, especially online.  It is especially important to watch our reaction to things during tough times in our life.   It also means we have to be more aware of what we put into our heads and improve media literacy.

What sparked the initial post was dealing for the umpteenth time with a circulated link  about a plea by an Islamic group to destroy the Great Pyramids. The reaction ranged from hand wringing to screams of persecution. It’s been revealed to be a hoax since then. Honestly, I had my criticisms of the original article since there were some dubious links and was too emotionally charged to fully convey that – even if the call is true – it’s a bad idea to follow. It also goes in the face of the Egyptians who tried to protect their heritage even during their revolution, the attempts to repatriate artifacts, and even an attempt to copyright Ancient Egyptian replicas.  Tourism focused on its ancient history is very important to their economy.  When I and others pointed to links confirming the hoax and pointing out the very points I cited we were met with extreme opposition.  I’m positive I threw “islamophobia” out there a few times.  The information we provided didn’t feed their emotional state; it was so contrary to their media source and agenda that cognitive dissonance ensued.

What pains me to see is that it could have taken a few minutes to think this through. Yes, there are extremists that will do these things, but they exist everywhere. I’m sure I can dig a bit and find some clergy who feel Ancient American sites should be destroyed (as if Manifest Destiny and other campaigns didn’t help that along). It actually demonstrates a point I made in an earlier article about the pitfalls about following one’s emotions without thinking. That’s not to say the Abrahamic faith-based groups that do these things are non-existent, but they’re not as prominent as one thinks. I can tell you from experience a good portion of the time the groups that act this way aren’t fully educated about Pagans and they’re acting on their own knee-jerk reactions. These knee-jerk reactions come from their own fears.

Knee-jerk reactions such as these are a side effect of fear-mongering.   It’s not shameful, but it is a human trait exploited so often it’s integral to keep it in check when faced with media sensationalism.  It’s supposed to shock you, it’s supposed to stir up your emotions, and it’s supposed to place us towards a certain agenda.  This is where fear-mongering becomes problematic.  People in an emotional state sometimes surrender reasoning for the sake of security (or the feeling at least).  This tends to stir up hatred towards a targeted group.  I’ve found in my experience fear-mongering and hate-mongering tend to go hand in hand.

However, there are still ways to mitigate our knee-jerk reactions.  One of the things to understand right off the bat is everyone has an agenda, myself included.  For example, this blog post has an agenda to explain everything you read has some agenda and will use a form of sensationalism to incite a desired outcome.  That’s the hardest part because it means every bit of media to which we expose ourselves–even those from our own groups–may have a questionable agenda exposed with some scrutiny.  The best defense against knee-jerk reactions from media sensationalism, though, is to improve media literacy.  Media Smarts has a website with incredible resources on how to hone media literacy.  Don’t let the target age for their learning tools deter you; the information is still invaluable to all ages.

As with most things I stress on my blog awareness and knowledge are key in combating some of these extremes.  It takes practice, but it’s worth not panicking over every misquoted article about the Pope allegedly targeting Pagans with pancakes (yes, I used alliteration on purpose).  It takes effort to stop, process the article read without emotion, and analyze the piece.  I assure it’s worth it.  It has saved me anxiety and isolation issues doing this.  It may also reveal some things about sources you may not like, such as an author purposefully inciting fear in order to rally people against a Catholic organization or externalize resentments about Catholicism the author harbors.  Ultimately, the way to combat knee-jerk reactions is to improve critical thinking skills.


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Devotional Tuesday: Just Trying Not to Overreact

Mandatory Disclaimer:  This is just my personal take on some of the passages and may or may not pull from academic sources.  In other words, this is just my interpretation of things.  Take it or leave it.

 

“O bringer of your offering who came forth from Sais, I have not been unduly active.” -transl. R.O. Faulkner

 

This is one of the more interesting translations for me. In one translation of this passage I see that it is translated as “I have not been aggressive” with the emphasis on acting like a warrior. I’ve read that priests didn’t always look favorably upon warriors in Ancient Egypt, and when combined with the associations of Nit to Sais probably influence this confession somewhat if this translation is accurate. There are probably a few reasons for it. Serving in the military, just like today, is tough. With that toughness comes aggression which the Egyptians utilized, which came out even after the battle was over and plundering began. I’m sure some will argue about how “all’s fair in love and war”, but the problem comes not when aggression is used in a fight or war but after aggression is no longer necessary. It’s a problem when the aggression is a way of overreacting.

 

Aggression is one which is a big challenge I feel for modern Kemeticists. If one lives in America there’s a massive violent culture. It’s not even about the media with violence, but in everyday interactions. Aggression also doesn’t have to be physically violent, just hostile. I’ve also found when used as a form of overreacting it leads to more problems with even innocuous situations.

 

When I lived in Virgina a simple“excuse me” would result in a glare from the offended party. Asking a fast food establishment about my order (I had waited half an hour and people who ordered after me were served and given their food) resulted in the workers yelling, and one time a worker yelled profanities at me. One woman was even physically threatened for complaining about poor service at a restaurant in the very town where I lived. It honestly bothered me how quick to anger the people seemed to be. What type of life leads to this behavior? Why is this culture so oriented on violence to solve even the smallest issues? I researched some things and came to the conclusion most of what I witnessed stemmed from a culture of honor. The concept revolves around how people take “the law” (it’s not so much actual laws as much as personal codes) into their own hands because the resources aren’t there to enforce laws or law enforcement is unreliable, and people are in survival mode. When factoring in how Prince Edward County was the poorest country in Virginia at the time it explains some of the aggression. Even if it wasn’t trying to gather the most resources the stress from trying to make ends meet is stressful enough.

 

Watching ourselves is important because when we reach that breaking point it can lead to overreaction at mildest. When we overreact more often than not we’re aggressive. With aggression we see the extremes of our behavior and their matching consequences. More often than not I’ve seen people respond to “fight or flight” with the former. Even after the physical wounds heal it leaves an imprint on the mind. People will react to any similar situation sometimes as if the previous incident was happening again. Aggression isn’t just a momentary feeling but cumulative in my experience.

 

The question isn’t why not overreact at this point because the majority of people know the consequences of reaching that breaking point. Self awareness provokes us to find ways to remedy overreacting and aggression. We’re not going to perfect self awareness and not catch certain behaviors. It’s part of being human. That said here are some things which help me from overreacting:

 

Don’t engage. Not every situation requires aggressive action. Not every situation requires a response even. The Maxims of Ptahhotep asserts one shouldn’t argue with superiors nor inferiors. Given the context of why it shouldn’t be done it works out; superiors may have the ability to make one’s life difficult and inferiors were viewed as uneducated during Ptahhotep’s time, so arguing with either looked disfavorable and undermined oneself. I like to look at it with the latter rather than those of lower rank those who are beyond reasoning. Let people acting in an unsavory manner stupefy themselves.

 

Stop and look at the situation. There may be other factors to consider. The other person may have reached their limit and you were in the way. Maybe the people at the fast food places I mentioned were tired and overworked when I asked. Maybe the waitress at the restaurant was on the verge of getting fired and was stressed. That doesn’t make the behavior acceptable, but it does make a situation more approachable. Sometimes when analyzing the situation we’re not as innocent in the dealing of things as well. What seems like gentle teasing may be the last straw for someone.

 

If it’s possible to speak with the person when both you and the other person are calm, do it. However, we also aren’t capable of being reasonable creatures all the time. There’s a solution for that too.

 

Remove yourself from the situation. If possible, just leave the situation. Online this can be a little more complicated because people sometimes like to follow an individual over several sites, threads, et cetera. There are also situations where an individual may follow you, as I’ve seen often in road rage. This is why when people are overreacting and aggressive there are other options.

 

Call the proper authorities. I’ve had to call the police on people who got violent because I knew I couldn’t handle the situation that spiraled out of control. Sometimes calling upon an authority figure isn’t the police but a moderator. Whoever is supposed to be an authority in the situation should be notified if the situation is beyond normal handling.

 

Treat aggression as a last resort. If the person is violent, you can’t get away, and it requires immediate response I feel aggression is reasonable. I’ve used it when I was completely cornered and I was physically harmed. I fought my way out and grabbed a phone to contact authorities. I’ve also used aggression to escape an abduction.

 

When one looks at a situation calmly and not resort to unnecessary knee-jerk reactions some things become clearer and better off. I’ve found walking away from some online communities was better for my peace of mind than constantly bickering with people to “prove a point”. I’ve found some people can’t be bothered with because they let one aspect of their life define them, bet it a positive or negative aspect. I’ve found there’s no helping them, but awareness of these things helped me act accordingly.

 


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Horus Jesus Meme

I’m sure if my readers haven’t been subjected to the woefully inaccurate film Zeitgeist they’ve encountered the people who believe this.  In Kemetic circles this is mostly in the Jesus is really Horus (specifically Heru-Sa-Aset) myth.  It’s annoying because it’s been long disproven, and seems to originate from a 19th century poet whose interest was in Ancient Egypt.  Given the  information available at the time it’s sufficient to assume the information is completely off the mark.  I find it mostly annoying because there are people who still assert this information even in the day where more accurate information is available.  Even google has a feature to search academic sources.  Another blogger, warboar, covered the issue pretty well and with others made a meme about it to demonstrate the absurdity of this connection.  I enjoy it so much I wanted to play along.

I used quickmeme for my captions, so if you want to add a few feel free.  Here are my favorites:

 

 


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The Ninefold Purification: Does Anyone Know What It Is?

I was reading the Book of the Heavenly Cow and I came across instructions that mentions “the ninefold purification”.  My internet search has failed me on trying to find what exactly this is (unless I delve in Buddhisim, but I’m pretty sure that’s not it), let alone how it’s different from any other purification.   Otherwise the other source I’m finding comes from Budge, and I don’t trust that all too much.

All that it mentions is it lasts three days in the Heavenly Cow.  Does anyone have any other information on this or where I could find it?


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Budget Thursday: Libraries

I remember as a child elated to venture through the library and select my own books to read. I was fortunate to have parents that weren’t too concerned with what I checked out as long as it wasn’t full of adult content or practices of which they didn’t approve (which was usually arts and crafts, but that’s due to the inherent mess that came with it). Thanks to the convenience of the internet and bookstores it’s a resource most remembered when one is lacking an internet service at their home. Regardless, the library is still a valuable resource for one researching Ancient Egypt with little change to spare.

Most libraries are more than books and videos. Some libraries actually subscribe to various academic journals relevant to your research; this subscription may be available in a digital or physical format, sometimes even both. The catch to this is usually how available a journal may be. I have found many times in my searches that journals are considered a reference source so you may not be able to check it out. Should that be the case in your library, don’t fret. You can still sit down with the copy and makes notes as necessary.

Take advantage of the inter-library loan program. Many libraries engage in some form of inter-library loan program. Libraries that partake in these programs show you what’s available not only at the current library but other libraries as well. If you use it you retrieve the book and pick it up at your desired location. The drawback is you may have to wait a few days, but this saves on costs of transportation in the long run.

Don’t forget to behave (and make sure any kids behave as well). It isn’t a budget-worthy point, but it’s a nice point to make these days. Even though much of how libraries function has changed drastically some protocols for behaving have not. Many years ago it was considered improper etiquette to carry on a conversation at a normal volume since it’s disruptive to a reading environment. In the day of cellphones it’s easy to just take a phone out and proceed to converse without regard to your location. Some libraries have set up “no cellphone” zones due to this rampant problem. Keep your cellphone on silent or turned off. If you must speak on your cellphone move to an area where you won’t disturb others (this may even be outside) and keep it brief. Also, speak in a hushed tone. This is akin to what my elementary teachers taught as the “3 inch voice”, or speak as if the person is within 3 inches of you.

Beware of the food court. Some libraries also provide a food court in today’s world (I don’t understand it either). It should go without saying to avoid from spilling food or drink onto a library book. If you damage a book the library has the right to ask for recompense.

Pay attention if something is for reference only. If it’s a reference book / journal / et cetera you can’t check it out. You can, however, take notes or make copies. On that note…

You don’t have to check out a book or other material. Many libraries accommodate for reading, just as they always have. You can come prepared to take notes, make copies, what have you and then place the reading material back into its proper place.


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Budget Thursday: The Internet as a Resource

Let’s face it, the internet is a research source that people will most likely use regardless of how much money one has to spare. It’s fairly inexpensive, there are vast amounts of websites devoted to information on Ancient Egypt, and it’s easy to network with others to access such information. When trying to find accurate information online, one discovers new challenges: many people push their unverified personal gnosis –or UPG– as accurate and truthful as a whole; outdated information may be used; or information that’s outright erroneous. So how does one navigate the internet and find useful information?

Google Scholar is a helpful tool. There are a few useful methods, one which I learned while researching for an English essay back in college. I grew frustrated with the lack of scholarly sources the metasearch engines provided. Upon venting on a forum I frequented a fellow member suggested the scholar feature on Google. The scholar filter displays a plethora of links, though admittedly some scholarly sources are better than others. It links to some sites where you must pay to view the article (it seems there’s no escaping that), but many articles are available for free. I acquired several free .pdf files from several reputable institutions, like the Chicago Institute of Near Eastern studies.

Check the “shelf life” of the information. I will caution that some reputable sites still list some articles where the information is very dated. They list these not to “throw people off” as some would lead to believe. Egyptology is a field that changes very drastically, so what may have been held as a fact a few decades ago might be dismissed today.

Fact check with peers. A simple, though questionably effective, way to fact check are forums or social groups. Those who frequent such places often have many resources and knowledge they are willing to share. However not all sources are up-to-date, accurate, or even for a particular path for which you follow. This is where the aforementioned groups are double-edged. As long as there’s awareness of who follows exactly what path (which means paying attention or asking for clarification) a pattern should develop with certain practices. Understanding how other practices function and asking for sources is integral to weeding out some of the information.

Keep up with Egyptology. If consulting a religious forum feels too dicey, there are websites devoted solely to Egyptology. While it’s difficult to discern if JHotep1992 is really pursuing a degree in Egyptology, let alone possesses any real credentials, they may provide accurate information. That’s why I personally stick with resources from a college. Learning what’s accepted as accurate or scholarly is a boon for independent research.

Learn how to research. Another method includes analyzing as many materials as possible on the subject. In my first semester of college I took a composition course where we learned how to research topics. My teacher encouraged us to look at as many different reputable sources as possible from different authors. That way it would be easier to extrapolate the consensus on information and discern facts. It’s also helpful to educate yourself on the types of sources available.

Here are some sites I recommend:

Per Djeba’s Per Ankh Library (note: you will have to sign up for a class or for the organization, but it’s worth it)


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Why Spiritual Mapping Intrigues Me

After I learned about the New Apostolic Reformation I thought I’d look into the movement a bit more. While I was very disturbed by what I found I discovered they use a technique called “spiritual mapping”. From what I understand spiritual mapping is a type of prayer technique that allows an individual to “search out” areas that need evangelizing. It appears from what I can gather the system works as follows, according to this site:

The gatekeepers commission the watchmen to spiritually map their community. They act as spiritual covering.

The watchmen [sic] working in teams intercede, investigate [sic] and collate the relevant data.

The information is summarized in a series of reports released to the gatekeepers.

The gatekeepers decide on the appropriate action deemed necessary i.e. identification, repentance, spiritual warfare, reconciliation.

They lead and mobilize the watchmen into appropriate action- prayer walking, worship meetings, strategic level spiritual warfare [sic] and so forth.

The gatekeepers participate with the watchmen rather than just allocating them to the task.

If this is truly the method of spiritual mapping it comes off as something the Catholic Church does when evaluating someone for an exorcism. Even if it isn’t it comes off as overly complicated for what they’re trying to do. I don’t understand why one would need approval to evangelize a place if a person feels it’s needed, let alone approval to make a town a “better place” (I only put it in quotations because that is a very subjective term). Moreover I have a hard time finding what qualifies someone as a “gatekeeper” or a “watchman”. The best I can find is an article that discusses what it means to be a gatekeeper. It gives me the impression that a gatekeeper can go around and do the same things as watchmen (e.g. actively make a place spiritually welcome) but seem to have a stronger connection to God- possibly something akin to an oracle. It doesn’t seem to say how long one has to be a watchman before they can go to their place at gatekeeper, if they have to go through some sort of test, or if they are just handed the title. I probably won’t find out anytime soon.

What is probably as interesting is what I found on another website. John Dawson, the person who seems to be credited with coining the concept, came up with a list of questions to focus on when mapping:

from “Taking Our Cities for God” by John Dawson (Lake Mary, FL: Creation House, 1989)

1.What place does your city have in your nation’s history?

2. Was there ever the imposition of a new culture or language through conquest?

3. What were the religious practices of ancient peoples on the site?

4. Was there a time when a new religion emerged?

5. Under what circumstances did the gospel first enter the city?

6. Has the national or city government ever disintegrated?

7. What has been the leadership style of past governments?

8. Have there ever been wars that affected this city?

9. Was the city itself the site of a battle?

10. What names have been used to label the city and what are their meanings?

11. Why was the city originally settled?

12. Did the city have a founder? What was his dream?

13. As political, military and religious leaders emerged, what did they dream for themselves and for the city?

14. What political, economic and religious institutions have dominated the life of the city?

15. What has been the experience of immigrants to the city?

16. Have there been any traumatic experiences such as economic collapse, race riots, or an earthquake?

17. Did the city ever experience the birth of a socially transforming technology?

18. Has there ever been a sudden opportunity to create wealth such as the discovery of oil or a new irrigation technology?

19. Has there ever been religious conflict among competing religions or among Christians?

20. What is the history of relationships among the races?

I can’t speak for anyone else, but I feel this list is so broad and vague that it could easily apply to anywhere in a negative way. It seems that since a google search on prayer maps turns up many results (including this one I found) my opinion isn’t so hard to support.

The way I see it, this is a conglomeration of concepts and implementations that have existed since the Second Great Awakening, only with more of a paranormal investigator and New Age twist. I do have my concerns about it. The sheer amount of information available on prayer mapping, maps included, gives me the impression this is a concept gaining momentum. However that doesn’t mean this is a technique to fear; knowledge is the enemy of fear and knowing more allows people to act accordingly.